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ISO 9001:2014 CERTIFIED HOMOEOPATHIC CLINIC

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Skin Diseases

Skin is the outermost Part of the human body which covers and protects the internal organs from injurius effects of the environment and the harmful organisms. It is made up of three layers of the tissue, i.e. epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue. In addition, it also has two appendages, i.e.hair and nail, and three glands, i.e. sweat glands, sebaceous glands and apocrine glands.

Epidermis is the outermost layer of the Skin and consists of stratum corneoum or horny cell layer, stratum granulosum, stratum malpinghii or prickle cell layer and stratum germinatum or basal cell layer.

SKIN DISEASE is an infection of the superficial layers of the skin by Streptococci or Staphylococci,or by both organisms.clincally, it is seen in two forms, i.e. impectigo contagiosa and bullous impetigo. Impetigo contagiosa occurs commonly on the face of small children. It manifests as very thin walled vesicles Which rupture rapidly leaving behind surperficial ulcers covered with bright yellow crusts and pus. The lesions gradually extend irregularly to the periphery without central healing. The crusts eventually dry and separate without scarring.

Functions

  • The most important function of the skin is to protect the body by various means and mechanisms. Due to constant. shedding of stratum corneum it acts as a mechanical barrier and does not allow organisms to stay or penetrate into the skin
  • Triglycerides, free fatty acids, etc. produced from the breakdown of sebum act as antibacterial agents.
  • Sebum secreted from sebaceous glands make the skin supple.
  • Melanin produced by the melanocytes present in the basal layer of the epidermis protects the body from ultra-violet radiation.
  • Langerhan's cells present in the epidermis phagocytose agents whoch invade the skin.
  • Body temperature is controlled by sweat glades through secretion and evaporation of sweat.
  • Vitamin D is systhesised in the skin in the presence of sunlight.

Types of Skin Diseases

Corns

Corns

  • These are localized smaller callosities by friction and pressure of ill-fitting shoes or the projecting ends of the shoe nails.
  • A corn consists of a central hyperkeratotic spike projecting downlward towards the dermis which forms a hard core on the surface. Due to continuous pressure on the surface the deeper end of the corn may start pressing on the underlying epidermis.
  • If it presses upon an underlying nerve twig, it causes acute pain whenever the corn get pressed, otherwise the lesions are painless
Cellulitis

Cellulitis

  • It is an infection of deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Usually, it occurs as a complication of a wound, ulcer or other skin conditions but may develop suddenly even in previously normal skin specially in the presence of oedema. It manilaese as a red tender swelling with ill - defined border on any part of the body. It is usually associated with fever and malaise
Erysipelas

Erysipelas

  • It is the infection of the upper layer of the dermis usually by Streptococci. It manifests as a sharply-defined slightly elevated tender erythematous area associated with high fever and malaise.
Boils

Boils

  • It is an acute infection of hair follicles and surrounding tissue. It starts as small deep-seated, tender, follicular and inflammatory nodule which turns to a pustule in a few days. The hair is shed during the early stage of the disease. The lesion is usually present singly and may be seen on any part of the body.
  • Malnutrition is another important predisposing factor for recurrent boils in children.

Acute Paronychia

Acute Paronychia

  • It is an infection of the nail fold and occurs due to local injuries like nail bites, ingrowing nail, splits and splinters or spontaneously without any cause. Sometimes it present as a complication of chronic paronychia. It presents as a painful red swelling of the nail fold

Chicken Pox

Chicken Pox

  • Chicken pox or varicella is caused by varicella zoster (v-z) virus . It is acquired through droplet infection from the nasopharynx of the inquired infected individual . The vesicle fluid contains a large number of viruses, however, the scabs are non- infectious.
  • The incubation period of chicken pox varies from 9-23 days. After 1-2 days of fever and malaise, scarlatiniform or morbiliform erythema is seen, subsequently papules devlop which rapidly change into tense vesicles. Within a few hours the vesicles turn into pustules surrounded by red areolae. In 2-4 days dry crusts form which take another 4-5 days to separate.
  • The lesion heal without or with very minimal scar. The distribution is centripetal, i.e. the lesions are more on the trunk than face, scalp and the limps. occasionally, itching occurs in a few patiants.
  • Varicella confers lasting immunity

Herpes Zoster

Herpes Zoster

  • Herpes Zoster is also caused by varicella zoster virus. It occurs in individuals who are partially immune to the virus.
  • After an attack of chicken pox, the virus is belived to get lodged in the posterior root ganglion(s) where it remains dormant.
  • An attack of herpes zoster occurs due to reactivation of these viruses in posterior root ganglions. What leads to reactivation of the viruses resuting in development of herpes zoster is still not known
  • However, certain disease and conditions like Hodgkin's disease, leukaemia, patients on systemic cortico-steroids or other immune- suppressive drugs have been found to be associated with the increase incidence of herpes zoster
  • It starts with a severe pain localised to a nerve segment. In a day or two it is followed by grouped tense vesicles situated on an erythematous base. The eruptions as a rule are limited to a single neural segment and on one side of the body, i.e. unilateral.

Herpes Simplex

Herpes Simplex

  • It is caused by a virus called Herpes hominis and spreads through droplet infection and through direct contact. After primary infection the virus probably persists thoughout life. Herpes simplex manifests in two forms: (1) Primary herpes simplex, and (2) Recurrent herpes simplex.

Primary Herpes Simplex

Primary Herpes Simplex

  • It occurs when the Patient has been exposed to the virus for the first time. It usually manifests as acute gingivo - stomatitis, balano-posthitis, vulvo-vaginitis or kerato-conjunctivitis.
  • It is usually an acute condition and may be associated with malaise, restlessness, fever, enlargement of regional lymph nodes alongwith grouped slightly bigger vesicles at the site of infection.

Recurrent Herpes Simplex

Recurrent Herpes Simplex

  • After initial infection the patient may continue to get multiple grouped small vesicles and ulcerations with or without burning sensation. Usually there is no evrythema at the base and no constitutional symptoms. Most of the time, the lesions are situated on or around the muco-cuta-neous junctions like mouth, nose and genitals, but sometimes they are lacated on the other parts of the body like hands, thighs, forehead, etc.

Acne Vulgaris

Acne Vulgaris

  • It is a chronic inflammatory disorder of pilo-sebaceous follicles which usually occurs in adolescents of both sexes. Most of the people develop it to a variable degree. It usually appears at puberty and continues for variable periods in different individuals.
  • The lesions of the acne are usually situated on the cheeks, forhead, chin, nose and the temporal regions, but in severe cases shoulders, back and the central part of the chest may also be involved.
  • The characteristic lesions of acne are the come-dones which have dark horny follicular plugs. These may be open called "black head" or closed Known as "White head"
  • The other lesions of acne consist of papules With or Without inflammatory changes, papulo - pustules or large cystic lesions. Majority of the partients also have scars of different sizes and shapes on their face.
  • Acne is belive to be caused by many factors including excenssive secretion of the sebacaceous glands, blockage of pilo-sebaceus duct and bacterial infection.

Chloasma

Chloasma

  • It is also called melasma and used for a pattern of asymptomatic super-ficial brownish pig-mentation seen mainly in females
  • Usually, the lesions appear during pregnancy but have also been seen in unmarried girls and males. It has also been seen developing in females taking contraceptive pills
  • Hydantoin can cause choasma occasionally in both sexes. Some of the unmarried girls with chloasma have been found to have disturbances in their menstrual cycle. The lesions may disappear in many females after stoppage of contraceptive pills or after delivery but is often persistent.
  • The lesion are usually seen on the bridge of the nose, both cheeks, upper lip and fore-head. on the fore-head.a linear area just above the eyebrows is common. The lesions are usually bilateral and often symmetrical.The become more prominent after sum exponsure.

Vitiligio

Vitiligio

  • It is due to stoppage of melanin formation by the melanocytes and present as asymptomatic depingmented macules any where on the body including mucous membranes of lips and geitalia. There is a marked reduction or even absence of melanocytes and melanin in the epidermis. Histochemically, there is lack of DOPA-positive malanocytes in the basal layer of epidermis
  • Degenerating melanocytes have been seen in a few cases especially at the margins of vitiligo lesion. The macules vary in size and shape as well as in colour.
  • Some of the lesions or Some part of the lesions may be hypopig-mented rather than depigmented. In some lesions the hair are also white, this is called leucotrichia.
  • Margins of the lesions are usually welldefind and occasionally hyperpingmented. Some petients have only afew lesions while others have multiple lesions all over the body.
  • The course of the disease is very variable.
  • The repingmentation is usually perfollicular.
  • The lesions are usually absent at birth and appear at time after birth. A number of factors have been incriminated as causes of vitiligo
  • It is supposed to be transmited by an anautomal dominat gene with irregular penetration and 10-30 per cent of the patients have been found to have some relative having vitiligo
  • Vitiligo has also been seen on the flanks of some ladies who wear tight-strings petticoats. Vitiligo in such cases is believed to be caused by prolonged pressure of the petti-coat string.
  • Vitiligo lesions have been found to occur very frequently on knees, elbows, ankles, knuckles and other areas of skin which are subjected to repeated trauma. Linear lesions of Vitiligo have been seen in some petients the site of scratching. This shows that in susceptible individuals repeated trauma even minor one may produce depigmentation.
  • In some patients of vitiligo lesions spread very fast. Such types of lesions are frequently associated with other diseases like hyper and hypothyroidism, pernicious anaemia, Addison's disease, diabetes mellitus, malignant melanoma and halo naevus. Such lesions are believed to be caused by auto immune mechanism where an auto antibodies destroy the melanocytes resuting in depigmention.

Treatment

Treatment

  • Vitiligo is an absolutely harmless disease except for its cosmetic implications. A patient of vitiligo can be as efficient, physically, mentally and sexually as any other individual. The spread of the disease can be arrested and a substantial amount of the disease can be arrested and a substantial amount of the repigmentation of the lesions can be achieved in a majority of the every the petients who undergo appropriate homeopathy treatment.

Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic Dermatitis

  • This is inherited as a polygenic recessive character. The patient inherits an increased tendency for irritable skin and of getting sensitised to various antigens present in the atmosphere.It may also be associated with other componnents of atopy like asthma, urticaria, hay-fever or allergic dermatitis. Family members of many patients have been found suffering from one of the atopic disorders.
  • The clinical manifestations vary with age but itching is the persistent, symptom. Atopic dermatitis during the pering the period of persistent, symptom. Atopic dermatitis during the period of infancy is called infantile eczema.